Formal schooling is the exception rather than the rule. Only the children of wealthy or highborn parents receive any real education. Even so, most folks of civilized lands are literate and understand the value and the potential power of the written word.
Most people learn to read and write from their parents or from clerics. Very few schools exist. Those that do are expensive, exclusive, private schools or academies that spend as much time teaching riding, courtly manners, and swordplay as they do on true academic matters. Most young nobles or merchant scions acquire their education from personal tutors, bards, heralds, and noble counselors retained specifically for that purpose by their parents.
True scholarly learning is the preserve of sages, scribes, clerics, and wizards. The nonhuman races, particularly the elves, are a notable exception to that statement, as are human cities or nations that encourage citizens to study with the clergy of deities who promote knowledge and learning.
Special academies for trade skills and crafts of all sorts litter the land and the age-old system of Apprentice and Master lives on, but all Journeymen typically spend some amount of time in an Academy specific to their trade.